In this article, we will learn to make a program to swap two numbers without a third variable in JavaScript. As a JavaScript beginner, you might have done this program using third variable. But have you ever think, “is there any way to do this same thing without a third variable?”. So yes we can do it in many ways, and it has its own benefit like we can save memory and partially some performance using this method.

So let’s begin coding and make it step-by-step. And if you are not a beginner then also you will learn some new things.

**There are 4 different methods to make this program:**

- Mathematical Operation
- XOR Operator
- Single Line Swapping
- Destructuring Assignment Array

## Mathematical Operation

Okay, we will make this program with the help of basic operation, where we will use addition and subtract operators.

In this method, we have a = 10 and b =2 initially, here we added both value and assigned to a, So a = 12. Then we have subtracted the value of b from a and assigned to b, so it will be 12-2 =10 which is b’s value. Then we have subtracted b’s value, which is 10 from a, so 12-10 =2 which is now a’s value.

```
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>Document</title>
</head>
<body>
<script>
var a = 10;
var b = 2;
document.write("First Method </br>")
a = a+b; //a= 10+2 = 12
b = a-b; //b= 12-2 = 10
a = a-b; //a= 12-10 = 2
document.writeln("value of a = "+a+"</br>");
document.writeln("value of b = "+b+"</br>");
</script>
</body>
</html>
```

## XOR Operator

Now let’s move on to the second method, here we will use XOR(Exclusive-OR) Operation to get the result. We have again assigned the same values to a and b, then we used a^b which means (a XOR b). So as we know XOR Operations when two binary digits are same then the resultant digit will be 0, otherwise 1.

So what we do here is we are converting the a and b values to binary and matching both digits to get the result. Here (a^b= 1010 ^ 0010 = 1000), as we know, 1010 is binary of 10 and 0010 is binary of 2 and 1000 is binary of 8, so we got a =8. Then we have again did same operation (a^b) assigned to b, so b = 10. Then again we have did same operation (a^b) and assigned to a, so a =2.

```
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>Document</title>
</head>
<body>
<script>
var a = 10;
var b = 2;
document.write("Second Method </br>")
a = a^b; //a= 1010 ^ 0010 = 1000 = 8
b = a^b; //b= 1000 ^ 0010 = 1010 = 10
a = a^b; //a= 1000 ^ 1010 = 0010 = 2
document.writeln("value of a = "+a+"</br>");
document.writeln("value of b = "+b+"</br>");
</script>
</body>
</html>
```

## Single Line Swapping

Now we will make this same program in one line of operation. Here we again assigned the same values to a and b. Now we have used `a = b + (b=a, 0)`

, Here b will be 2 and (b=a) will run, so b=10, also (b=a, 0) will return 0, so (b=a, 0) will be 0. Ultimately, a= b + 0, resultant a = 2 and since we run (b=a, 0) so b’s value will be updated to 10.

**Note: In parentheses part, we have did some operation at first and returned some value using comma operator.**

```
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>Document</title>
</head>
<body>
<script>
var a = 10;
var b = 2;
document.write("Third Method </br>")
a = b + (b=a, 0); //here a = b + 0 because a will be assigned to b and (b=a, 0) wil return 0
document.writeln("value of a = "+a+"</br>");
document.writeln("value of b = "+b+"</br>");
</script>
</body>
</html>
```

## Destructuring Array Method (1)

So this array destructuring array method, also will be a one line swapping method. Here again we assigned the same values to a and b. Then we used [a, b] = [b, a], this should be easy to understand where first element’s value will be exchange with first value, same for second one as well. This is also considered as direct swap method. Here we created an array with two values a and b, when this `[a,b] = [b,a];`

line executes then the temporary array will form with b and a will be there. And as per array destructuring first element will assign to first element and second element will be assigned to second element.

So Basically a= b and b=a will be performed at the same time, so updation of value do not occur any problem in swapping.

```
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>Document</title>
</head>
<body>
<script>
var a = 10;
var b = 2;
document.write("Fourth Method </br>");
[a,b] = [b,a]; //both values will be exchanged at same time
document.writeln("value of a = "+a+"</br>");
document.writeln("value of b = "+b+"</br>");
</script>
</body>
</html>
```

## Bonus Method

Okay, This method also a way to make this program, I don’t know what to call it, so simply it’s a bonus method. Here we again assigned the same value to a and b of course. And then we have used this` a = (a*b)/(b=a);`

line of code to perform one line swapping. Here (a*b) will be 10×2 =20, and then we have simply assigned the value of a to b (b=a). Ultimately, (a*b)/(b=a) which is (20)/(10)= 2, so value of a is 2 and value of b will be 10.

```
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>Document</title>
</head>
<body>
<script>
var a = 10;
var b = 2;
document.write("Fifth Method </br>")
a = (a*b)/(b=a); // 20/10
document.writeln("value of a = "+a+"</br>");
document.writeln("value of b = "+b+"</br>");
</script>
</body>
</html>
```